joi, 26 ianuarie 2012

“A comunica – comunicare....!”

“A comunica – comunicare....!”
Pentru definirea acestui subiect si deziderat al stiintei conducerii, am luat, pe rand, informatii din:
a/ Dictionar analogic si de sinonime al limbii romane [Buca,Evseev, Kiraly,Crasoveanu, Vasiluta]. Ed. Stiintifica si enciclopedica, Buc. 1978], pozitiile 275 [ informatie, semnificatie, cunoastere], 517 [ semnal, indicatie, reprezentare, gestica, denuirea], 533 [sociabilitate,naturalete, spontaneitate, cordialitate, colegialitate, solidaritate, comportare, prietenie, amabilitate];

b/ Mozila Fayirefocs – ‘comunicare’, internet Google, Wikipedia

http://www.librarie.net/carti/29501/Arta-comunica-Metode-forme-psihologia-situatiilor-comunicare-Alex-Mucchielli,
http://www.librarie.net/carti/29501/Arta-comunica-Metode-forme-psihologia-situatiilor-comunicare-Alex-Mucchielli,,
http://www.despresuflet.ro/forum/comunicare-f40/de-ce-simtim-nevoia-de-a-comunica-t257.html
http://www.despresuflet.ro/psihologie/comunicare/de-ce-simtim-nevoia-de-a-comunica--137.html
http://www.pr365.ro/
http://www.elefant.ro/carti/stiinte/stiinte-umaniste/psihologie/arta-de-a-comunica-metode-forme-si-psihologia-situatiilor-de-comunicare-1100.html
http://www.cartedesucces.ro/titlu.php?id=2412

http://www.piticipecreier.ro/carte/1434-Arta-de-a-comunica-Metode-forme-si-psihologia-situatiilor-de-comunicare.html

1
Communication techniques

1. Introduction to communication
1.1. Defining communication
1.2. Educational communication
1.3. Communicational axioms
1.4. The conditions of efficient communication

2. Communication techniques
2. 1. Communication techniques in inter-personal relations
2.1.1. Speech training. Nonverbal communication. Posture. Mimic. Gesture
2.1.2. Speech training. Para-verbal communication. Voice
2.1.3. Speech training. Verbal communication. The word
2.2. Public communication techniques. Speech

Objectives: after having studied these chapters, the students will be able to:
1. define the notion of communication
2. examine the axioms of communication
3. identify the requirements of communication
4. become familiar with the components of interpersonal communication
5. describe the techniques of public communication

Recommended bibliography:

Carnegie, D., Secretele succesului. Cum să vă face_i prieteni şi să deveni_i influent, Editura
Curtea Veche, Bucureşti, 1997
Coteanu, I., Seche, L, Seche, M., (coord.), Dic_ionarul explicativ al limbii române, Editura
Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureşti, 1998
Cutlip, S., Center, A., Broom, G., Effective Public Relations, New Jersey,Prentice Hali, 1994
Dobrescu, M. E., Sociologia comunicării, Editura Victor, Bucureşti, 1998
Drăgan, I., Paradigme ale comunicării în masă, Casa de Editură şi Presă „Şansa” S.R.L.,
Bucureşti, 1996;
Hariuc, C., Psihologia comunicării, Editura Licorna, Bucureşti, 2002
Pânişoară, I.O., Comunicarea eficientă, Editura Polirom, Iaşi, 2006
Iacob, D., Rela_iile Publice. Eficien_ă în comunicare, Editura Comunicare.ro, Bucuresti, 2003
Kendall, R., Public Relations Campaign Strategies: Planning for Implementation, New York,
Harper Collins Publishers, 1992
Popescu, D., Arta de a comunica, Editura Economică, Bucureşti, 1998;
Prutianu, Ş., Antrenamentul abilită_ilor de comunicare, vol.1, Editura Polirom, Iaşi, 2004
Prutianu, Ş., Antrenamentul abilită_ilor de comunicare. Limbaje ascunse, vol.2, Editura
Polirom, Iaşi, 2005
Rotaru, I. Comunicarea educa_ională – aspecte teoretice şi demersuri aplicative, Editura
Brumar, Timişoara, 2008
Şoitu, L., Pedagogia comunicării, Editura Institutului European, Iaşi, 2001

2
This course aims to present the specific aspects of communication sciences, being
focused on highlighting the techniques of communication, as practical ways to practice
authentic communication, assertive. Educational counselling, as a communication process
pays particular attention to mastering the skills of speaking and listening.
Communication involves interaction and feedback, sharing meanings, points of view
on issues of common interest. In the process of communication, the content (information)
receives a significant relevance, but not only; the system of values, prejudices,
communication styles of speakers. A number of factors condition the act of communication
and influence the communicative behaviour of those involved in communication.
The term of communication is usually used with different meanings. The concept
emphasizes a relationship with another person that is intended to ”put together” something, to
participate in common.
Communication is one of the concepts difficult to define. The meaning of this concept
focuses on issues such as:
a) Transmission
b) Transfer
c) Influence
d) Interaction
e) Sharing
a) Transmission (of information/knowledge)
Often the concept of communication is used as a synonym for information. But
information is only part of an entire function which is communication. Associating
communication with a process of transmission is especially evident in the dictionaries. Thus,
the communication means:
- ”To make known, to inform, to convey” (The Dictionary of neologisms, 2007)
OVERVIEW
1. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION
1.1. DEFINING COMMUNICATION
3
- ”The act of communication and its outcome” (The Explanatory Dictionary of
Romanian Language, 1998).
b) Transfer (of information/knowledge)
This meaning of communication is specific especially to educational communication
through which it seeks the transfer of knowledge from teacher to student.
c) Influence
Communication occurs ”whenever a system, a source influences another system, a
receiver, by means of alternative signals that can be transmitted through their link.” (C.
Osgood, apud I. Dragan)
d) Interaction (in the interpersonal relationships)
Communication is considered to be a mechanism by which human relations exist and
develop.
e) Sharing
Educational communication aims the spiritual development / growth of a person. It
involves the active interaction of those involved in the communication process in a specific
context. Through the educational communication, the educator influences the trainee. The
results of educational communication lead to changes in the trainee's personality, but also in
the educator’s.
Paul Watzlawick, Janet Beavin, Don Jackson, the most important representatives of
the School of Palo Alto have formulated the axioms of the interpersonal communication.

Axiom 1. ”Communication is inevitable”. (Impossibility not to communicate; we are
not able not to communicate). This axiom makes sense only if we believe that falls under the
unintentional transmission of information and communication, which is done through
indexes.
Axiom 2. ”Communication is performed at two levels: informational and relational,
the second one providing guidance for the interpretation of the former one”. This means
that any communication does not simply limit to transmitting information, but it also induces
a conduct.
1.2. EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATION
1.3. COMMUNICATIONAL AXIOMS
4
Axiom 3. ”Communication is an ongoing process that cannot be treated in terms of
cause and effect or stimulus response”. This third axiom can be obtained from the study of
interaction or exchange of messages between communication partners.

Axiom 4: ”Communication takes either a digital form, either an analogue one”.
The terms are taken from cybernetics, where a system is considered digital when operating
with a binary and analogue logic for the use of a logic with an continuous infinity of values.
The man is the being able to use the two ways of communication, digital and analogue.

Axiom 5: ”Communication is irreversible”. The meaning of this axiom should be
understood as: an act of communication, once it occurred, triggering changes and
mechanisms that cannot be given back, as any reversal on the outgoing messages cannot
annihilate the effects already produced, as we speak to another person than the initial partner
of discussion. Once we've offended the other party, in vain we declare that ”we take that
back”, because the effect of our words has occurred, and apologies are late.

Axiom 6: ”Communication involves power relations and implies symmetrical or
complementary transactions”. In the case of additional transactions, between the people
who communicate there are always differences of hierarchical position, regardless of their
nature and the stimuli and the answers are of opposite types. The possibility of achieving a
real equality between interlocutors is a goal almost impossible to achieve; they are
symmetrical only when the communicational acts are of the same type as the stimuli.

Axiom 7: ”Communication involves processes of adjustment and
accommodation”. The premise from which it leaves is that people are different, they
perceive reality differently, they have different interests and purposes and therefore the
communication between them may improve only after an effort of mutual accommodation of
its interlocutors to the context and communicational situation. In essence, the adjustment
proposed by the ”axiom” refers to the need for partners to harmonize and synchronize with
each other.
An effective communication implies a relationship between the parties, with a wide
range of elements which condition verbal, non-verbal and para-verbal communication. The
elements on which it should be reflected to achieve the desired results are:
•Physical
- Respecting the distances.
1.4. THE CONDITIONS OF EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION
5
- Posture and gesture.
- Respiration rate.
•Verbal and para-verbal
- Copying the prevailing sensorial channel of the interlocutor.
- Tone of voice and speed.
•Mental
- To/From
- Internal reference/External reference
- Appropriate/Inappropriate
- Opportunities/Requirements/Reasons
•Values
They relate to how each person decides what is good or bad, right or wrong. To find
them you must answer the question: ”What is important to me?”
The values are ordered hierarchically, from the most important one to the least
important one, and they can be easy discovered with a few key questions.
•Equivalent criteria
It represents the way values are understood in practice, as the same value can be
perceived in very different ways.
•Beliefs
Beliefs refer to the belief that certain things are true and others not and to the causeeffect
sequences (”if...”, ”then...”). They are formed during our entire existence based on:
social environment, events, knowledge and previous results.
•Attachments
They came along with the values and the beliefs and relate to a specific element.
•Memories
The memories influence profoundly the perceptions and the behavioural answers of
people. It is obvious that you cannot know everything that anyone remembers, but the
information that a person keeps from certain experiences can be useful in conducting a
conversation.
•Decisions
Decisions relate to people and environment and are unconsciously taken early in life
and then mostly conscious (rational and emotional). They express beliefs, values and
attachments.
6
The use of these key points in conversation aims to guide the conversation to your
benefit without your interlocutor to be aware of this. At this point, the interlocutor will
perceive you as a very nice person, to whom, he does not know why, but he is inclined to
make favours that he would not do to another person.
The development of the communication skills is done by analyzing a program of
suggestions and practical rules present in each of the components of interpersonal acts: to
make conversation, to argue, to seduce, to suggest, to manipulate, to keep quiet, to listen, to
write.
To male conversation.
To argue.
To seduce.
To suggest.
To manipulate.
To keep quiet.
The relationships between people are based on communication. Educational
counselling is essentially a communication activity. Any communication is based on
interpretation.
The interpersonal communication is carried out on three levels: verbal, nonverbal and
para-verbal. Thus, we talk about verbal, nonverbal and para-verbal communication. In a
study made by Albert Mehrabian, he argues that only 7% of the message is transmitted
through verbal communication, while 38% is transmitted through voice and 55% through the
body language.
The nonverbal and para-verbal communication are designed to enhance verbal
communication, so the school counsellor can reinforce through elements of pantomime or
gesture, by using a certain tone, certain aspects of the message that he sends to the student
who asks for its services. At the same time, the nonverbal and the para-verbal communication
complement the verbal message.
2. COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES
2. 1. COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES IN INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONS
7
Body language always has communicative value. The messages are permanently,
even if they cannot always be read accurately and on time. Body language is confusing. For
many signals there are at least two or three distinct meanings. Deciphering body language is
based on trial and error.
Body posture refers to both the posture that a person adopts normally or in a specific
time and to the movements which alter or affect the body's position. The bowed head and the
slumped shoulders note obedience, inferiority, weakness or timidity. The straight posture,
head up or left behind indicate complacency. Tension and stiffness betray fear.
Mimic adjusts the human communication, in fractions of second. Mimic signals are
glaring and disclose secrets, when they are in contradiction with the verbal message. Mimic
is hard to keep under control and as such it provides information. ”Reading” the mimic
expression regards all the consistent signals about what is happening to her.
Gesture refers to the movements of the whole body, the hands and the fingers, the
legs, the shoulders, the neck and the head, as well as anyone’s way of acting harder or easier,
faster or slower.
The voice is an important factor through which we learn a lot about a person. Most
times we can easily recognize if the person speaking is a man or a woman, whether young or
old, whether happy or sad, whether calm or nervous, energetic, soft, hurried or patient,
sincere or hypocritical, friendly or surly.
The tone of voice is important both as a vocal technique, and as a tool of persuasion.
The tone of voice transmits feelings and attitude, while the words transmit only the
information.
Voice volume may be the evidence of a personality of great strength and vitality, but
also the need to feel important or rather betray a fragile personality, self-oriented and afraid
of the others.
Speech rhythm is another parameter that provides information about who
communicates. In general, it is considered that those who have a high level of education,
when they communicate, the speech rhythm is moderate. A fast pace can be tiring for the
2.1.1. SPEECH TRAINING. NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION. POSTURE.
MIMIC. GESTURE
2.1.2. SPEECH TRAINING. PARAVERBAL COMMUNICATION. VOICE
8
interlocutor; he fails to focus on the multitude of information that pours in on him at once. An
extremely slow pace may suggest a person laggard in thinking or hesitating. According to the
speech rhythm, speech can be calm, quick, slow, fast, dramatic, ”radio phonic”, precipitated
or affected.
The vocal combinations refer to the tone, volume and rhythm of speech. They give
the general sense of the spoken message. It is that combination of voice inflections associated
with a certain tone and rhythm of the story that escapes the conscious control and fails to
create that initial magic.
The words have the power to influence the human physiology. In other words, the
ultimate tool of influence is the word. The word is the most powerful tool that can serve us to
achieve our goals.
The verbal language is far from being perfect. The words sometimes betray the most
secret thoughts. We hear many times expressions like ”I'm sorry, that's not what I meant...”
and in fact an act of communication is doomed to failure.
The words are those which cause visual stimuli or auditory senses. It seems a familiar
scene that when we read/hear about a very tragic event our eyes wet or when we read/hear a
story about a Romanian athlete who won an Olympic medal to enjoy the fact ”that one of
ours” is winning. Each word is a code and using it makes sense to the extent that its meaning
is shared by people who communicate.
The ambiguity of the words is the natural consequence of the meanings assigned to
them.
The polarization represents the tendency to describe the world in terms of black or
white, good or bad, ugly or beautiful, positive or negative etc.
The generalization is the tendency to extend a certain private experience to a whole
category.
Trap-words. The words evoke images and experiences that stir positive and negative
emotions. The positive ones stimulate, energize, mobilize, while the negative ones paralyze,
demobilize.
The pragmati approach. To be pragmatic means to have the attitude and the skills of
a person who knows what he wants and who is able to use effective means to achieve the
purpose, without getting lost in unnecessary philosophical scruples and sophistications.
2.1.3. SPEECH TRAINING. VERBAL COMMUNICATION. THE WORD
9
Wise men listen more and talk less. School counsellors are people who know how to
listen with all their senses. They encourage the other person to talk about himself until he
loses the mask thrown over hidden attitudes and feelings.
The fineness of the spirit of observation is a very important quality of a good listener.
Famous psychologists, like C. Rogers and A. Moreau have suggested the involvement of
active listening skills by becoming aware of the three stages of the process required to go
before the decision and right action:
To hear and to see
To imagine
To feel
The principle of mirroring
Mirroring is an advanced way of listening, which erases the differences between
speakers, reflecting like the mirror or like the echo the visual and audio messages of listened
person. It is the timing at the level of the preferred channel of communication preferred by
the speaker, of the sensory system of representation: visual, auditory, kinaesthetic.
The principle of reformulation
The listening techniques based on reformulation have been developed especially in
psychotherapy and counselling, because it gives the customer the impression that he is the
one who solves problems. In essence, the reformulation consists of resuming with his own
words, like a slightly unfaithful echo of the partner’s words, operating some adjustments,
omissions and additions. Carl Rogers outlined a range of active listening techniques based on
the reformulation: paraphrasing, the hi-fi echo, transforming affirmations into questions, the
suspension, reframing, the exaggeration and meiosis.
a) The technique of paraphrasing
b) The technique of the hi-fi echo
c) The technique of transforming affirmations into questions
d) The technique of suspension
e) The technique of reframing
f) The technique of exaggeration
g) The technique of meiosis

2.1.4. ANTRENAMENTUL ABILITĂŢILOR DE ASCULTĂRE ACTIVĂ
10
Preparing the speech
Sustaining a successful public speech involves an activity of preparation. To find the
ideas, a solution could be to write down everything you can think of, related to the field, just
watching the connections the brain makes automatically, without censoring, in the initial
phase, the thoughts. Later choose the best ideas and design the structure of the speech. But, to
do this you need to clearly define your objective.
•Defining the objective
Every communication must have an objective, especially when you speak to an
audience. The questions you should ask yourself are: What do I want to obtain? What kind of
audience am I speaking to? Which is the best way to reach my goal? What kind of arguments
should I use, rational or emotional? How will I know if I have achieved the objective? The
moment you have find a valid answer to these questions, you've already done the most
important work.
•The use of persuasion techniques
The persuasion techniques are useful in a communication of this kind and therefore
they should be considered.
Once you have defined the purpose, the arguments and the strategy, you need a plan
to present your ideas in an orderly manner. The listeners always remain impressed when the
speaker is able to present his arguments and thoughts clearly. The simplest and most effective
way is called STEP (in English: State, Translate, Exemplify, Prove) and it helps you organize
your thoughts, speeches and articles to get the best effect:
- “State” – present the idea simply and clearly;
- “Translate” – expose the idea to be understood by the public; define the terms which you
refer to, reduce the ambiguities as much as possible; make comparison with similar
things;
- “Exemplify” – give examples of what you say: personal experiences, anecdotes etc.
- “Prove” – demonstrate what you have said, presenting facts that prove your affirmation,
calling on expert s’ opinions and to statistics.
2.2. PUBLIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES. THE SPEECH
11
The course presents communication as a process of transmission, transfer, influence,
interaction, sharing. The educational communication is a distinct sector of interpersonal
communication. The communication techniques described in this course aim mainly the
individual and the public communication. The course, being designed for school counsellors,
has been focused mainly on interpersonal communication techniques, very necessary in the
professional activity of the school counsellors. In turn, the interpersonal communication
techniques have been analyzed from the point of view of verbal, nonverbal and para-verbal
communication, and in terms of the two broad categories of skills that communication
targets: the skill of active listening and the skill of speaking.
1. verbal communication
2. non-verbal communication
3. para-verbal communication
4. communication techniques
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
1. Carnegie, D., Secretele succesului. Cum să vă faceţi prieteni şi să deveniţi influent,
Editura Curtea Veche, Bucureşti, 1997
2. Coteanu, I., Seche, L, Seche, M., (coord.), Dicţionarul explicativ al limbii române,
Editura Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureşti, 1998
3. Cutlip, S., Center, A., Broom, G., Effective Public Relations, New Jersey,Prentice
Hali, 1994
4. Dobrescu, M. E., Sociologia comunicării, Editura Victor, Bucureşti, 1998
5. Drăgan, I., Paradigme ale comunicării în masă, Casa de Editură şi Presă „Şansa”
S.R.L., Bucureşti, 1996;
6. Hariuc, C., Psihologia comunicării, Editura Licorna, Bucureşti, 2002
7. Pânişoară, I.O., Comunicarea eficientă, Editura Polirom, Iaşi, 2006
8. Iacob, D., Relaţiile Publice. Eficienţă în comunicare, Editura Comunicare.ro,

COURSE SUMMARY KEY CONCEPTS
9. Kendall, R., Public Relations Campaign Strategies: Planning for Implementation,
New York, Harper Collins Publishers, 1992
10. Popescu, D., Arta de a comunica, Editura Economică, Bucureşti, 1998;
11. Prutianu, Ş., Antrenamentul abilităţilor de comunicare, vol.1, Editura Polirom, Iaşi,
2004
12. Prutianu, Ş., Antrenamentul abilităţilor de comunicare. Limbaje ascunse, vol.2,
Editura Polirom, Iaşi, 2005
13. Rotaru, I. Comunicarea educaţională – aspecte teoretice şi demersuri aplicative,
Editura Brumar, Timişoara, 2008
14. Şoitu, L., Pedagogia comunicării, Editura Institutului European, Iaşi, 2001

OTHER USEFUL RESOURCES
1. http://www.eed.usv.ro/assets/fisiere/carti%20incot/Tehnici-de-comunicare.pdf
2. http://www.scn.org/mpfc/modules/tm-ctru.htm#Comm
3. http://alfalu.3x.ro/web/tehnicidecomunicareinterpersonala.htm

c/ din Pedagogia generala – principiile instruirii si educarii
http://facultate.regielive.ro/cursuri/pedagogie/principiile-didactice-14616.html
http://www.spiruharet.ro/dppd/014fe2e6ecfa0d28f94e8874264355f7.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coercion
http://www.referatele.com/referate/diverse/online11/Referat-facultatea-de-sport---principiile-antrenamentului-sportiv-referatele-com.php

Referat facultatea de sport - principiile antrenamentului sportiv
TOADER VIOLETA, Student E.F.S., Anul IV, Grupa 33A, zi, REFERAT 59796yfg66ein6r

PRINCIPIILE ANTRENAMENTULUI SPORTIV
1. Antrenamentul sportiv: definitie si componente fi796y9566eiin

Una dintre definitiile date antrenamentului sportiv este cea inclusa in ”Dictionarul terminologic”, conform careia antrenamentul sportiv este un ‘’proces pedagogic desfasurat sistematic si continuu gradat de adaptare a organismului omenesc la eforturile fizice, tehnico-tactice si psihice intense, in scopul obtinerii de rezultate inalte intr-una din formele de practicare competitiva a exercitiilor fizice’’.
Notiunea de antrenament este sinonima cu cea de pregatire sportiva. Conceptul de antrenament are in subordine bazele antrenamentului (ansamblul legilor si principiilor care fundamenteaza si conditioneaza antrenamentul sportiv) stabilite de teoria antrenamentului sportiv (sistem de principii si metode care compun si structureaza antrenamentul sportiv), conform principiilor antrenamentului (idei de baza, de ordin pedagogic, psihologic, fiziologic, igienic si altele care structureaza efectuarea si conducerea procesului de antrenament).
In consecinta, antrenamentul sportiv are mai multe componente:
• pedagogica – prin procesul didactic cu care opereaza;
• biologica – prin efectele obiective in planul dezvoltarii functionale si al nivelului adaptiv al organismului uman;
• psihologica – prin implicatiile caracteriale, morale emotionale ale personalitatii sportivului;
• sociologica – prin raporturile si modul lui de integrare si omogenizare in mediul social, economic si cultural;
• igienica – prin conditiile specifice de alimentatie, odihna si de mediu ambiant in care sportivul se antreneaza si se reface;
• etica – prin idealurile de fair-play, de angajare totala si onesta in pregatire si in concurs;
• estetica – prin frumusetea si rafinamentul gestului motric, prin complexitatea si armonia actiunilor motrice, prin spectacolul provocat de procesul sportiv.
Principiile antrenamentului sportiv fi796y9566eiin
Pornind de la premisa ca antrenamentul sportiv este inainte de toate un proces didactic cu implicatii multiple, este necesara diferentierea principiilor antrenamentului sportiv in doua categorii:
• principii generale si
• principii specifice.
Principii generale
Principiile generale sunt denumite ca atare deoarece se intalnesc in toate genurile de activitate sociala, indeosebi in sfera educationala. Aceste principii surprind si sintetizeaza realitatea complexa a antrenamentului sportiv, din punct de vedere al procesului pedagogic prin care se prepara performanta sportiva.
Principiile antrenamentului sportiv pot fi formulate dupa o anumita taxonomie a criteriilor, care sa porneasca de la aspectele cele mai generale ale activitatii sportive si de la obiectivele ei, pentru a continua cu continutul, metodele si strategiile adecvate.
Asadar, aceasta taxonomie propusa cuprinde patru categorii de principii:
a. pricipii privind orientarea pregatirii si dezvoltarii multilaterale a personalitatii si integrarea socio-profesionala a sportivului, eficienta maxima si economicitatea, ca si complementaritatea teoriei cu practica;
b. principii privind obiectivele: maximalizarea capacitatii de performanta, dezvoltarea aptitudinilor motrice, cognitive, afective si emotionale, controlul, obiectivarea si evaluarea activitatii si colaborarii dintre antrenor, sportiv si colectivul de asistenta stiintifica;
c. principii privind continutul: interdisciplinaritatea, rationalizarea si operationalizarea;
d. principii metodico-strategice: individualizarea, constientizarea, motivatia si efortul voluntar, accesibilitatea, interactiunea mijloacelor verbale cu cele neverbale, suprainvatarea, modelarea, simularea, specializarea si autoreglarea sportivului.
Principii specifice
In aceasta categorie se includ principiile care actioneaza preponderent in antrenamentul sportiv si care sunt utilizate si in alte activitati, generatoare de alte tipuri de performante (balet, muzica, circ etc.). Principiile specifice sunt de esenta biologica pentru ca practica antrenamentului implica inainte de toate cunoasterea si respectarea legilor care guverneza procesele de adaptare (a organismelor vii la excitatii exterioare repetate care se manifesta sub forma solicitarilor fizice).
Aplicarea legilor generale ale adaptarii la aspectele specifice antrenamentului sportiv a permis formularea principiilor lui biologice.
1. Principiul continuitatii
Evidentierea acestui principiu s-a impus pe masura extinderii competitiilor sportive si mai cu seama datorita esalonarii lor pe intregul an calendaristic. Astfel, caracterul ciclic al pregatirii a fost inlocuit cu cel continuu. Unii autori, evoca inca principiul ciclicitatii in acceptiunea de repetare in timp a concursului si a pregatirii, dar viata sportiva internationala a impus corelarea intre pregatire si concurs, adica continuitatea pregatirii ce leaga si conditioneaza concursul urmator.
Marirea frecventei concursurilor sportive, sporirea dificultatilor acestora au determinat cresterea rolului procesului pedagogic al antrenamentului sportiv, ameliorandu-i efectele, indeosebi pe plan biologic. Altitudinea performantei sportive a depins tot mai mult de nivelul calitatilor motrice innascute si dobandite ale sportivilor, de numarul deprinderilor motrice, concretizate in elementele si procedeele tehnico-tactice cele mai eficiente. Acest aspect se urmareste in cadrul lectiilor de antrenament sau, mai bine zis, in suita lectiilor care compun un ciclu saptamanal, o etapa, o perioada cu ciclu anual de pregatire. Deci, necesitatea realizarii unei succesiuni permanente a lectiilor de antrenament a izvorat din cunoasterea legilor bio-psiho-pedagogice de formare a deprinderilor motrice si de dezvoltare a calitatilor motrice ale sportivilor. Schimbarile complexe survenite in organism sub influenta exercitiilor fizice, a mijloacelor antrenamentului au un caracter fizic si se mentin un timp limitat.
Pornind de la ideea fundamentata stiintific, conform careia mecanismul formarii si perfectionarii deprinderilor motrice, ca si dezvoltarea calitatilor motrice se conduc dupa regulile temporare reflexe, este indispensabil sa se asigure continuitatea antrenamentului sportiv.
Perfectionarile morfofunctionale caracteristice sportivilor nu sunt castigate pentru totdeauna, ci reprezinta modificari reversibile, tocmai datorita capacitatii organismului de a se adapta mereu la conditiile de mediu in continua miscare. Daca efortul nu se mai repeta se creaza o situatie diferita de cea precedenta si organismul va reactiona in conformitate cu noile cerinte. In absenta exercitiilor care au determinat si intretinut perfectionarile caracteristice antrenamentului, organele si sistemele corpului se adapteaza la noile conditii, capacitatea functionala, structura si dimensiunile lor reducandu-se pana la nivelul solicitarii noi, mai scazute, la care sunt supuse.
Practica sportiva si cercetarea stiintifica au demonstrat ca perfectionarile dobandite prin antrenament se pierd intr-un timp de 3-4 ori mai scurt decat cel necesar obtinerii lor. Involutia survine chiar si in cazul in care nu se intrerupe antrenamentul, dar scade intensitatea efortului in raport cu cea din etapa precedenta.
Suprimarea brusca a eforturilor de catre sportivii de performanta obliga organismul acestora sa treaca rapid intr-o situatie complet noua care impune o solicitare atat de mare a mecanismelor de adaptare, incat adesea pot surveni tulburari sau imbolnaviri.
Cercetarea stiintifica fundamentala, cea aplicativa, experienta marilor antrenori demonstraza necesitatea obiectiva a aplicarii cu strictete a principiului continuitatii, ca o conditie fundamentala a perfomantei de talie mondiala.
2. Principiul solicitarilor optime si a cresterii in trepte a eforturilor
Transpunerea in practica a principiului continuitatii presupune si instituirea unui regim permanent de activitate a sportivului si realizarea unui numar suficient de repetari ale mijloacelor de antrenament. In scopul cresterii nivelului de pregatire a sportivului este necesar ca, pe fondul asigurarii continuitatii activitatii sale, antrenorul si sportivul sa modifice treptat continutul exercitiilor si mijloacelor de antrenament.
Dialectica performantei sportive consta in cresterea treptata a eforturilor in antrenament, pana la atingerea nivelurilor maxime, permanent modificabile. Aceasta crestere a eforturilor se bazeaza pe dezvoltarea capacitatii functionale a organismului omenesc, pe puterea lui de adaptare la mediul inconjurator.
Cercetarile stiintifice au aratat ca, in cazul in care oirganismul este supus unui excitant care creste dintr-o data, dincolo de limita, se produce o slabire a reactiei, o inhibitie (‘’inhibitie supraliminara’’ sau ‘’inhibitie de protectie’’). Astfel, la un efort slab de volum, intensitate, durata sau structura (sau toate la un loc), organismul sportivului raspunde corespunzator, cu o cheltuila de energie redusa. Pe masura ce intensitatea excitantului creste, adica parametrii efortului din antrenamente isi maresc valorile, se amplifica si cantitatea de energie pe care sportivul o cheltuieste pentru a raspunde adecvat. In momentul in care antrenorul amplifica in mod exagerat efortul si nu primeste un raspuns corespunzator din partea sportivului, inseamna ca s-a depasit gradul de pregatire al acestuia. La efortul nou, supramarit, el nu se mai poate adapta, iar eforturile mari de vointa depuse pentru a respecta totusi indicatiile il expun la o epuizare sau la supraantrenament.
In cazul in care organismele se adapteaza in mod progresiv la excitanti din ce in ce mai puternici, pot suporta o excitatie anterior supraputernica (o solicitare neobisnuita pentru organismul sportivului) astfel ca excitantii (antrenamentul) care provocau mai inainte aparitia inhibitiei supraliminare devin accesibili, acestia actionand intocmai ca un excitant puternic sau mediu.
Prin urmare, antrenamentul ideal este cel care inregistreaza indici superiori cantitativi si calitativi, atingand valori si solicitand organismul pana la ‘’refuz’’.
O conditie de baza a perfectionarii organismului la efort o constituie evitarea aparitiei fenomenului de obisnuinta sau de acomodare. Aceasta se realizeaza prin respectarea ‘’principiului cresterii in trepte a efortului’’. Acest principiu preconizeaza cresterea gradului de solicitare a organismului prin intensificarea efortului cand se utilizeaza aceleasi mijloace sau prin schimbarea acestora, organismul reactionand mai puternic la excitanti cu care nu este obisnuit.
3. Principiul prioritatii efortului specific competitional
Reactiile de adaptare la diferite exercitii mai au inca o caracteristica principala si anume specificitatea lor. Raspunsul organismului nu este acelasi la toate solicitarile. In functie de particularitatile fiecarui excitant unele organe sunt solicitate mai mult, altele mai putin.
Faptul ca gradul de perfectionare morfofunctionala a organismului conditioneaza nivelul performantelor sportive si ca aceste perfectionari depind de efortul depus in antrenamente duc in mod necesar la concluzia ca obtinerea celor mai inalte performante este posibila numai daca solicitarile din antrenament respecta specificul efortului competitional.
Avand in vedere faptul ca, in practica sportiva rezistenta, forta si viteza nu exista ca atare, ci numai ca forme concrete de manifestare si ca specificitatea maxima a acestora este cea din timpul competitiei, rezulta ca unul dintre mijloacele otime de antrenament il constituie concursul. De altfel, metodica actuala acorda o pondere tot mai mare concursurilor ca mijloc de pregatire pentru performante.

4. Locul pregatirii fizice multilaterale in antrenamentul sportivilor dr mare performanta
Numerosi autori romani si straini considera pregatirea fizica multilaterala ca un principiu de baza al antrenamentului sportiv. Potrivit acestui principiu, orice sportiv, indiferent de disciplina practicata, trebuie sa acorde o atentie deosebita dezvoltarii celor patru calitati fizice de baza (forta, viteza, rezistenta si indemanare) daca doreste sa obtina performante de inalt nivel.
Acest principiu mai poate fi mentinut in antrenamentul actualilor sportivi de mare performanta numai daca se constata ca sunt inca valabile cele doua teze fundamentale si anume:
a. pregatirea fizica multilaterala este o conditie a obtinerii rezultatelor inalte si
b. antrenarea unei calitati motrice se reflecta pozitiv asupra celorlalte calitati.
Verificarea primei teze s-a facut prin cercetarea particularitatilor morfofunctionale si motrice ale campionilor actuali din diferite ramuri de sport. Din astfel de cercetari a reiesit ca dezvoltarea fizica multilaterala nu este o conditie a obtinerii performantelor ridicate in sporturile al caror efort competitional necesita o singura cale de eliberare a energiei.
Astfel, problema pregatirii fizice multilaterale in sportul de inalta performanta actual trebuie privita intr-un mod diferit decat in deceniile anterioare. Pregatirea fizica multilaterala nu mai poate fi considerata ca o conditie a obtinerii performantelor inalte la toate disciplinele sportive, deoarece, marii campioni din sporturile ale caror efort competitional impune numai efort aerob sau anaerob nu sunt multilateral, ci unilateral dezvoltati, avand perfectionate doar organele, calitatile motrice si capacitatea de efort specifice cerintelor competitionale.
De asemenea nu exista dovezi ale transferarii efectelor pozitive dobandite in organele si sistemele solicitate in antrenament si la organele si sistemele care nu au fost solicitate in antrenamentul respectiv. Nici progresul obtinut intr-o calitate motrica nu se reflecta pozitiv asupra altei calitati motrice daca miscarile acesteia nu angreneaza in lucru aceleasi fibre musculare si aceleasi organe ca si calitatea care a fost antrenata.
Exista insa numeroase dovezi ca antrenamentul care determina mari perfectionari functionale, structurale si dimensionale in organele limitative ale unei cai de eliberare a energiei poate sa influenteze negativ organele care conditioneaza eliberarea de energie pe cealalta cale. Se poate afirma ca sportivii de mare performanta din disciplinele si probele al caror efort competitional se bazeaza pe o singura cale de eliberare a energiei, iar din punct de vedere motric rezultatele au ca factor limitativ o singura calitate pregatirea fizica multilaterala este contraindicata, nefavorizand obtinerea performantelor maxime, putand chiar sa franeze realizarea lor. Cand efortul competitional are caracter mixt si cerintele tehnico-tactice necesita mai multe calitati motrice, antrenamentul fizic trebuie sa fie multilateral.
In ceea ce priveste pregatirea fizica multilaterala in antrenamentul copiilor si juniorilor, teoretic consideratiile care pledeaza pentru specificitatea efortului in antrenament nu isi pierd valabilitatea nici la aceste perioade de varsta.
3. Concluzie fi796y9566eiin

Se considera ca intelegerea si aplicarea principiilor antrenamentului sportiv au o insemnatate hotarartoare in obtinerea si mentinerea performantelor sportive la nivel inalt. Aceste principii alcatuiesc punctul de plecare al teoriei si practicii antrenamentului sportiv modern.
BIBLIOGRAFIE :
Nicu Alexe – Teoria si metodica antrenamentului sportiv modern
Septimiu Todea – Metodica educatiei fizice si sportive
Septimiu Todea – Teoria educatiei fizice si sportului

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