sâmbătă, 18 mai 2013

Dezbateri in media internationala pe tema: Doping



Doping : subiect postat trunchiat pe Facebook, in 'errare humanum est' in urma cu ceva vreme si care incerca in mod onest a cauta un raspuns la intrebarea :"Gloria sportiva este obtinuta cinstit...?" Astfel am luat-o de la Zero, am intrat in Wikipedia, am postat la 'cafenea' si asa am ajuns la un subject larg dezbatut in presa internationala; iar despre 'gloriile noastre' nici nu poatte fi vb...., dece = deoarece nu prea aveam glorii care sa genereze un fenomen ocult ..., avem niste 'bieti gainari' care au furat ceva si apoi au crezut ca pot spune..:"eu, nu am fost acolo...!'
 

Cafenea > Wikipedia:
M.Olaru scrie: Depistarea celor care se dopeaza este subiect de senzatie, de  scandal, mai ales, in mass-media; de regula sportivii sunt penalizati cu interzicerea practicarii disciplinei in care au fost depistati si cu asta gata !
Totus,  practica dopingului arata ca s-a trecut de la faza empirica la cea elaborata, gandita, premeditat de alte persoane decat cel care ar trebui numit 'victima'.
Deci, daca un sportiv este depistat pozitiv ar fi normal ca si cei care l-au 'pregatit' sa fie sanctionati chiar mai aspru decat 'victima'...
Multi antrenori ai celor dopati ajung sa obtina fel de fel de beneficii si materiale dar mai ales morale si ei 'defileaza' in fata noastra, ca si cum totul a fost o simpla intamplare si deci 'putine sanse de a se repeta exista'..., ori viata ne arata ca acestia continua a premedita activitatea de doping, sunt tolerati cand ar trebui sa fie, parerea mea, exclusi din activitate, definitiv si iremediabil [ adica sa li retraga toate 'onorurile' obtinute fraudulos].
In acest ingust domeniu [ pedepsirea mentorilor] nu am remarcat sa existe masuri de pedepsire si atunci intreb: este just ca numai  o 'victima' sa sufere cand de fapt in 'spatele' sau 'pe spatele' ei sunt multi profitori ?
Nefiind 'expert' in a scrie pe siteul dv., va scriu si adresa de email la care, poate, ar fi nimerit a-mi da un raspuns Mircea Olaru, antrenor de inot, 4 Mai 2013 / 77 ani. [acum imi dau seama ca textul meu va fi respins deoarece nu sunt folosite semnele diacritice romanesti.., regret, dar eu asa scriu in grafia engleza si a ma intoarce la cea romana, necesara-recunosc, imi este greu... ce sa fac ?]
Bună ziua. Am anulat mesajul Dvs. de la Cafenea nu pentru că ar fi fost scris fără diacritice, dar pentru că nu se referă la Wikipedia. Or, în susul paginii [[Wikipedia:Cafenea]] scrie: „La Cafenea se discută numai subiecte legate de Wikipedia!”. Cele bune.


Performance-enhancing drugs



Costelle D, Berlioux M, Histoires des Jeux Olympiques, Larousse, France, 1980
Performance-enhancing drugs are substances used by athletes to improve their performances. The term may also refer to drugs used by military personnel to enhance combat performance.[1] Although the phrase performance-enhancing drugs is popularly used in reference to anabolic steroids or their precursors (hence the colloquial term "steroids"), world anti-doping organizations apply the term broadly[2] .

Types of performance-enhancing drugs

The phrase has been used to refer to several distinct classes of drugs:
  • Lean mass builders drive or amplify the growth of muscle and lean body mass; sometimes they're used to reduce body fat. They can also reduce the time it takes an athlete to recover from an injury. This class of drugs includes anabolic steroids, xenoandrogens, beta-2 agonists, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), and various human hormones, most notably human growth hormone, as well as some of their precursors[3] . Performance-enhancing drugs are also found in animals as synthetic growth hormone.
  • Stimulants stimulate the body and mind to perform optimally by enhancing focus, energy, and aggression. Some examples are caffeine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine[4] .
  • Painkillers mask athletes' pain so they can continue to compete and perform beyond their usual pain thresholds. Blood pressure is increased causing the cells in the muscles to be better supplied with vital oxygen. Painkillers used by athletes range from common over-the-counter medicines such as NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen) to powerful prescription narcotics.
  • Sedatives are sometimes used by athletes in sports like archery which require steady hands and accurate aim, and also by athletes attempting to overcome excessive nervousness or discomfort. Alcohol, diazepam, propranolol, and marijuana are examples.
  • Diuretics expel water from athletes' bodies. They are often used by athletes such as wrestlers, who need to meet weight restrictions. Many stimulants also have secondary diuretic effect. (Also used as a masking drug)
  • Blood boosters increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood beyond the individual's natural capacity. Their misuse is centered on endurance sports like cycling and nordic skiing. EPO is the most publicly known drug in this class.
  • Masking drugs are used to prevent the detection of other classes of drugs. These evolve as quickly as do testing methods – which is very quick indeed[5] – although a time-tested classic example is the use of epitestosterone, a drug with no performance-enhancing effects, to restore the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio (a common criterion in steroid testing) to normal levels after anabolic steroid supplementation.

Definition

The classifications of substances as performance-enhancing drugs are not entirely clear-cut and objective. As in other types of categorization, certain prototype performance enhancers are universally classified as such (like anabolic steroids), whereas other substances (like vitamins and protein supplements) are virtually never classified as performance enhancers despite their effects on athletes' performance. This is because athletes can get the correct amount of protein and supplements their body needs by having a proper diet[6] As is usual with categorization, there are borderline cases; caffeine, for example, is considered a performance enhancer by some athletic authorities but not others.[7]

See also

References

2.       ^ "Performance-Enhancing Drug Resources". Drug Free Sport. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
3.       ^ McKelvey Martin, Valerie. "Drugs in Sport". Retrieved 15 April 2013.
4.       ^ "Stimulants". Retrieved 14 April 2013.
5.       ^ Yesalis, Charles (2007). "12". Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
6.       ^ Clark, Nancy. "Athletes and Protein: The Truth About Supplements". Retrieved 14 April 2013.
7.       ^ "Caffeine and Sports Performance". Vanderbilt.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-04.

External links

East Germany closed itself to the sporting world in May 1965.[1] In 1977 the shot-putter Ilona Slupianek, who weighed 93 kg, tested positive for anabolic steroids at the European Cup meeting in Helsinki. At the same time, the Kreischa testing laboratory near Dresden passed into government control, which was reputed to make around 12,000 tests a year on East German athletes but without any being penalised.[1]
The International Amateur Athletics Federation suspended Slupianek for 12 months, a penalty that ended two days before the European championships in Prague. In the reverse of what the IAAF hoped, sending her home to East Germany meant she was free to train unchecked with anabolic steroids, if she wanted to, and then compete for another gold medal, which indeed she won.
After the Slupianek affair, East German athletes were secretly tested before they left the country. Those who tested positive were removed from international competition. Usually, such withdrawals were temporary as they were intended to serve less as punishment as to protect both the athlete and the East German team from international sanction. Ostensibly, the media would usually be informed that the withdrawal was due to an injury sustained in training. If the athlete was being doped in secret (as was often the case), their doctor would usually be ordered to fabricate a medical condition so as to justify the withdrawal to the athlete. The results of East Germany's internal drug tests were never made public - almost nothing emerged from the East German sports schools and laboratories. A rare exception was the visit by the sports writer and former athlete, Doug Gilbert of the Edmonton Sun, who said:
Dr (Heinz) Wuschech knows more about anabolic steroids than any doctor I have ever met, and yet he cannot discuss them openly any more than Geoff Capes or Mac Wilkins can openly discuss them in the current climate of amateur sports regulation. What I did learn in East Germany was that they feel there is little danger from anabolica, as they call it, when the athletes are kept on strictly monitored programmes. Although the extremely dangerous side-effects are admitted, they are statistically no more likely to occur than side-effects from the birth control pill. If, that is, programmes are constantly medically monitored as to dosage.[2]
Other reports came from the occasional athlete who fled to the West. There were 15 between 1976 and 1979. One, the ski-jumper Hans Georg Aschenbach, said: "Long-distance skiers start having injections to their knees from the age 14 because of their intensive training."[1] He said: "For every Olympic champion, there at least 350 invalids. There are gymnasts among the girls who have to wear corsets from the age of 18 because their spine and their ligaments have become so worn... There are young people so worn out by the intensive training that they come out of it mentally blank [lessivés - washed out], which is even more painful than a deformed spine."[3]
Then on 26 August 1993, after the former GDR had disbanded itself to accede to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990, the records were opened and the evidence was there that the Stasi, the GDR state secret police, supervised systematic doping of East German athletes from 1971 until reunification in 1990. Doping existed in other countries, both communist and capitalist, says expert Jean-Pierre de Mondenard, but the difference with East Germany was that it was a state policy.[4]
The Sportvereinigung Dynamo (English:Sport Club Dynamo)[5] was especially singled out as a center for doping in the former East Germany.[6] Many former club officials and some athletes found themselves charged after the dissolution of the country. A special page on the internet was created by doping victims trying to gain justice and compensation, listing people involved in doping in the GDR.[7]
State-endorsed doping began with the Cold War when every eastern bloc gold was an ideological victory. From 1974, Manfred Ewald, the head of the GDR's sports federation, imposed blanket doping. At the 1968 Mexico City Olympics, the country of 17 million collected nine gold medals. Four years later the total was 20 and in 1976 it doubled again to 40.[8] Ewald was quoted as having told coaches, "They're still so young and don't have to know everything." He was given a 22-month suspended sentence, to the outrage of his victims.[9]
Often, doping was carried out without the knowledge of the athletes, some of them as young as ten years of age. It is estimated that around 10,000 former athletes bear the physical and mental scars of years of drug abuse,[10] one of them is Rica Reinisch, a triple Olympic champion and world record-setter at the Moscow Games in 1980, has since suffered numerous miscarriages and recurring ovarian cysts.
Two former Dynamo Berlin club doctors, Dieter Binus, chief of the national women's team from 1976 to 80, and Bernd Pansold, in charge of the sports medicine centre in East-Berlin, were committed for trial for allegedly supplying 19 teenagers with illegal substances.[11] Binus was sentenced in August,[12] Pansold in December 1998 after both being found guilty of administering hormones to underage female athletes from 1975 to 1984.[13]
Virtually no East German athlete ever failed an official drugs test, though Stasi files show that many did, indeed, produce positive tests at Kreischa, the Saxon laboratory (German:Zentrales Dopingkontroll-Labor des Sportmedizinischen Dienstes) that was at the time approved by the International Olympic Committee,[14] now called the Institute of Doping Analysis and Sports Biochemistry (IDAS).[15]
In 2005, fifteen years after the end of the GDR, the manufacturer of the drugs in former East Germany, Jenapharm, still finds itself involved in numerous lawsuits from doping victims, being sued by almost 200 former athletes.[16]
Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes who publicly admitted to doping, accusing their coaches:[17]
Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes disqualified for doping:
  • Ilona Slupianek[18] (Ilona Slupianek was tested positive along with three Finnish athletes at the 1977 European Cup, becoming the only East German athlete ever to be convicted of doping)
Based on the admission by Pollack, the United States Olympic Committee asked for the redistribution of gold medals won in the 1976 Summer Olympics.[19] Despite court rulings in Germany that substantiate claims of systematic doping by some East German swimmers, the IOC executive board announced that it has no intention of revising the Olympic record books. In rejecting the American petition on behalf of its women's medley relay team in Montreal and a similar petition from the British Olympic Association on behalf of Sharron Davies, the IOC made it clear that it wanted to discourage any such appeals in the future.[20]

Documentation

In 1991 Brigitte Berendonk and Werner Franke, two opponents of the doping, published several theses which had been drafted former researchers in the GDR doping products which were at the Military Medical Academy Bad Saarow. Based on this work, in their book (translated from German as 'Doping Documents") they were able to reconstruct the practice of doping as it was organized by the State on many great athletes from the GDR, including Marita Koch and Heike Drechsler, who have denied the allegations. Brigitte Berendonk survived a 1993 lawsuit where Drechsler accused her of lying. The lawsuit essentially validates the book[21][22]

Significant cases

Renate Neufeld

In 1977, one of East Germany's best sprinters, Renate Neufeld, fled to the West with the Bulgarian she later married. A year later she said that she had been told to take drugs supplied by coaches while training to represent East Germany in the 1980 Olympic Games.
At 17, I joined the East Berlin Sports Institute. My speciality was the 80m hurdles. We swore that we would never speak to anyone about our training methods, including our parents. The training was very hard. We were all watched. We signed a register each time we left for dormitory and we had to say where we were going and what time we would return. One day, my trainer, Günter Clam, advised me to take pills to improve my performance: I was running 200m in 24 seconds. My trainer told me the pills were vitamins, but I soon had cramp in my legs, my voice became gruff and sometimes I couldn't talk any more. Then I started to grow a moustache and my periods stopped. I then refused to take these pills. One morning in October 1977, the secret police took me at 7am and questioned me about my refusal to take pills prescribed by the trainer. I then decided to flee, with my fiancé.[23][24]
She brought with her to the West grey tablets and green powder she said had been given to her, to members of her club, and to other athletes. The West German doping analyst Manfred Donike reportedly identified them as anabolic steroids. She said she stayed quiet for a year for the sake of her family. But when her father then lost his job and her sister was expelled from her handball club, she decided to tell her story.[23]

Andreas Krieger

Heidi Krieger competed in the East German athletics team, winning the gold medal for shot put in the 1986 European Championships in Athletics.
From the age of 16 onward, Krieger was systematically doped with anabolic steroids, which have significant androgenic effects on the body. She had already had doubts about her gender identity, and the chemical changes resulting from the steroids only exacerbated them.[25] Eventually, she had many of the characteristics of a man. In 1997, some years after retirement, Krieger underwent sex reassignment surgery and changed her name to Andreas.
At the trial of Manfred Ewald, leader of the East German sports program and president of his East Germany's Olympic committee and Manfred Hoeppner, East German medical director in Berlin in 2000, Krieger testified that the drugs she had been given had contributed to her transsexuality.

See also

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Schwimmverein Limmat Zürich


Schwimmverein Limmat Zürich - Zurück: Homepage | Ratgeber und Tips | Doping-Archiv

Doping von Minderjährigen in der DDR


Bundesgericht schafft Klarheit / 23. März 2000

Leipzig - In seiner ersten Entscheidung zum Doping von Minderjährigen im DDR-Sport hat der Bundesgerichtshof klargestellt, dass die Taten nicht verjährt sind. "In Fällen staatlich zentral gelenkter Vergabe schädlicher Dopingmittel an uneingeweihte minderjährige Sportler hat die Verjährung in der DDR auf Grund eines quasigesetzlichen Verfolgungshindernisses geruht", heißt es in der veröffentlichten Begründung des Beschlusses vom 9. Februar.

Mit der Entscheidung war die Revision des Sportarztes Bernd Pansold gegen seine Verurteilung wegen Beihilfe zur Körperverletzung durch das Landgericht Berlin vom 5. Strafsenat des Bundesgerichtshofs in Leipzig abgelehnt worden.

Pansold für Hormonvergabe an minderjährige Schwimmerinnen verurteilt

Der Sportarzt, der bis zur Schuldsprechung den Ski-Olympiasieger Hermann Maier am österreichischen Olympiastützpunkt in Obertauern betreut hatte, wurde am 7. Dezember 1998 vor der 34. Strafkammer in Berlin zu einer Geldstrafe von 180 Tagessätzen zu je 80 Mark verurteilt.

Das Gericht sah es damals als erwiesen an, dass der Sportmediziner des SC Dynamo Berlin von 1975 bis 1984 die Vergabe männlicher Hormone an minderjährige Schwimmerinnen gesteuert hat. Daher wurde er wegen Beihilfe zur vorsätzlichen Körperverletzung in neun Fällen schuldig gesprochen.

Eltern sind nicht aufgeklärt worden

Auf Grund der zentral organisierten Geheimhaltung wurden die Sportlerinnen, einschließlich ihrer Eltern, bewusst nicht über die ihnen verabreichten Mittel aufgeklärt. Die "unterstützenden Mittel" wurden nicht in Originalverpackungen ausgeteilt. "Den Sportlerinnen gegenüber wurde die Legende einzunehmender Vitamine oder Aufbaustoffe gebraucht", so die Begründung.

Der Einsatz von Anabolika führte zu Störungen im Hormonhaushalt und Fettstoffwechsel. Zudem bestand die Gefahr gravierender Nebenfolgen. So sind auch bei mehreren der betroffenen Sportlerinnen Folgeschäden in Form von Stimmvertiefung, übermäßiger Behaarung und Leberschäden aufgetreten.


Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Forgotten victims of East German doping take their battle to court
Athletes who were given drugs to compete in the name of communism seek £8m compensation
They are the forgotten victims. For three decades, East Germans ran, swam and shot-putted their way to glory, winning Olympic gold medals, setting world records and - so it seemed at the time -demonstrating the superiority of communism. But this month the human cost of East Germany's extraordinary sporting success will be laid bare in a courtroom in Hamburg.
Some 190 East German competitors are launching a case against the German pharmaceutical giant Jenapharm. They claim that the East German firm knowingly supplied the steroids that were given to them by trainers and coaches from the 1960s onwards until East Germany's demise in 1989. Jenapharm, now owned by Schering, argues it was not responsible for the doping scandal and blames the communist system.
Last month, meanwhile, Germany's athletics federation announced that it was checking 22 national records set by East German athletes. The investigation came after Ines Geipel, a member of the record-holding East German women's 4x100 metres relay team, asked for her record from 1984 to be struck off. She revealed she had been doped. In a separate case another former East German swimmer Karin König is today suing the German Olympic committee for damages. König claims that she was also a victim of doping between 1982 and 1987.
This state-sponsored doping regime played a decisive role in the dazzling success of East German athletes in international competitions - most notably at the 1976 Montreal Olympics and the 1980 Moscow games. But it also left a terrible legacy, the athletes' lawyers argue.
The victims all received Oral-Turinabol - an anabolic steroid containing testosterone made by Jenapharm. The "blue bean" had astonishing powers - accelerating muscle build-up and boosting recovery times - but its subsequent side effects were catastrophic: infertility among women, embarrassing hair growth, breast cancer, heart problems and testicular cancer. An estimated 800 athletes developed serious ailments.
The most public face of the doping scandal is Andreas Krieger - a shot-putter who took so many male hormones she decided to have a sex change.
One of the few other victims to have spoken publicly about her plight is the swimmer Rica Reinisch, who at the age of 15 won three gold medals in the 1980 Olympics. "The worst thing was that I didn't know I was being doped," she told the Guardian. I was lied to and deceived. Whenever I asked my coach what the tablets were I was told they were vitamins and preparations."
According to Prof Dr Werner Franke, a microbiologist who exposed the doping scandal after the fall of the Berlin Wall, East Germany's secret police kept meticulous records of the impact the drugs had on performance. A top-secret sporting medical committee including members of the Parteibüro, East Germany's communist leadership body, met to decide which members of the national squad were to be given the drugs. The aim was to show the superiority of the communist regime to its capitalist neighbour West Germany.
The strategy worked. In the 1972 Munich Olympics, East Germany - a country of 17 million - reached the top three in the medals table with the United States and the Soviet Union. Four years later, East German women won 11 of the 13 swimming events.
Franke contends that scientists from Jenapharm attended these secret committee meetings. Documents also suggest that Jenapharm scientists collaborated with the secret police, the Stasi, in an informal capacity, he claims - protesting privately but not publicly - at the use of steroids in sport.
"There was no medical reason to give steroids. It was against the law of the German Democratic Republic. It was against medical ethics," Franke said. "Everybody knew these drugs were not allowed. The people who participated in this clandestine operation knew that they would lose privileges if they refused to take part.
"But they also knew they wouldn't be executed. Some of the arguments now resemble those brought forward in the Third Reich. Those involved disapproved of what they were doing. They knew it was wrong. But they also knew it was a matter of national prestige, and was good for their careers. The Jesuits have a saying: 'For the greater glory of God.' This is what happened here."
Whereas Germany has an exemplary record in the way it has dealt with its Nazi past, much of what happened during communist East Germany has been swept under the carpet - in the apparent interests of national reconciliation. In the late 1990s criminal cases were brought against Manfred Ewald, the former East German team doctor, and Dr Manfred Hoppner, a former team medical consultant. They were given suspended sentences.
Schering, one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, has so far refused to pay any compensation. Isabelle Rothe, Jenapharm's chief executive, said she could give only some general background in advance of the trial, but she said she had "sympathy" with the victims of the doping scandal, and admitted that many of them were "under age" when they were given the steroids.
"I'm convinced that the claims for damages against Jenapharm are not justified," she added. "After everything we now know the company was not involved in concrete doping or training plans. This is also true of doping experiments on athletes." She called for further research, saying it would reveal previously unknown aspects of the case. It is not clear yet whether the firm will cave in when both sides meet this month for an arbitration hearing or tough out the inevitable bad publicity and fight the case.
Lawyers for the victims are hoping for €10-12m (£6.7m-£8.1m) in compensation, with most of the money going to former competitors whose lives have been ruined. Germany's parliament has already given €2m, €10,500 each.
Intriguingly, some of the world records set by East German athletes while using Oral-Turinabol have not been bettered.

Der Schwimmsport

Schwimmen ist die beste Alternative um sich rundum fit zu halten. Doch sollte man beachten, dass Schwimmen nicht nur als reine Sportart anzusehen ist, sondern es ist auch eine gute Möglichkeit um seinem Körper Erholung und Kondition in einem zu geben. In Form von Wassergymnastik wird dem Schwimmen sogar eine heilende Wirkung vorausgesagt.

Stilarten des Schwimmen

Wie in anderen Sportarten auch, teilt sich das Schwimmen in unterschiedliche Bereiche auf. Zum einen gibt es die Variante des Rücken- und Brustschwimmen, die auch als Grundtechnik bekannt sein sollte, und zum anderen findet man beim Schwimmen noch das Kraulen und den Delfin vor. Doch auch die Wassergymnastik hat das Schwimmbecken erobert, obwohl hier kein Schwimmen an sich stattfindet sondern eher gymnastische Übungen im Wasser. Das Brustschwimmen wird gerne im Anfänger Schwimmkurs verwendet. Die Arme werden dabei gleichzeitig von vorne unter dem Körper nach hinten wegbewegt, wobei die Beine eine Frosch artige Stellung annehmen und bei entsprechender Bewegung für Antrieb sorgen. Beim Rückenschwimmen hingegen liegt man mit dem Rücken auf der Wasseroberfläche und die Beine bewegen sich in paddelnder Bewegung. Die Arme hingegen gleiten vom Kopf an neben dem Körper nach unten. Als schnellste Stilart von allen wird das Kraulen bezeichnet. Den Antrieb bekommt der Körper hierbei zu 80 Prozent nur durch die Armbewegungen. Diese werden in kraulender Bewegung von vorne und dann seitlich am Körper vorbei nach hinten ausgeführt. Die Beine müssen die ganze Zeit über gestreckt bleiben und bewegen sich nur plantschend auf und ab. Da sich beim Kraulen das Gesicht im Wasser befindet, muss der Schwimmer seinen Körper während des Schwimmprozesses kurzzeitig etwas zur Seite drehen, damit das Gesicht aus dem Wasser kommt und das Atmen ermöglicht wird.

Positive Auswirkungen auf den Körper

Der starke Wasserdruck beim Schwimmen drückt die Blutgefäße zusammen, wodurch das Herz gezwungen wird mehr Blut zu produzieren. Dadurch vergrößert sich automatisch das Herzvolumen, die Herzfrequenz sinkt ab und das Herz beginnt besser zu arbeiten. Diese positiven Nebenerscheinungen sind aber erst nach längeren Trainingsphasen sichtbar. Das Atmen fällt einem scheinbar leichter und der Körper kommt gleichzeitig in den Genuss der Massagewirkung des Wassers auf den Körper.

Worauf sollte man achten?

Jeder kennt das Sprichwort, dass man nicht mit vollem Magen Schwimmen gehen sollte. Sich daran zu halten ist nur zu empfehlen. Denn beim Schwimmen benötigt der Körper sämtliche Energien um die eigene Muskulatur zu stärken. Ein voller Magen hingegen leitet einen Großteil der Energie in den Verdauungsbereich, der nun wiederum der Muskulatur fehlt. Dadurch kann es häufiger zu Krämpfen kommen, was gerade in tiefen Gewässern äußerst gefährlich werden kann. Vor dem Schwimmen sollte der Magen nicht komplett leer sein, sondern ein Imbiss in Maßen ist dennoch zu empfehlen. Bevor man dann zum Sprung ins kühle Nass ansetzt sollte man sich einmal kalt abduschen, damit es zu keinem Kreislaufversagen kommen kann. Denn plötzliche Kälte lässt die Blutgefäße zusammen ziehen, die im schlimmsten Fall einen Gefäßverschluss hervorrufen können. Ein weiterer Punkt beim Schwimmen sind auftretende Krämpfe. Sollte man vorhaben, eine längere Strecke zurück zu legen, so ist es ratsam, dies nur in Begleitung vorzunehmen.
Quelle des Bildes: HaBlu – Fotolia

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Cafenea > Wikipedia:
M.Olaru scrie: Depistarea celor care se dopeaza este subiect de senzatie, de  scandal, mai ales, in mass-media; de regula sportivii sunt penalizati cu interzicerea practicarii disciplinei in care au fost depistati si cu asta gata !
Totus,  practica dopingului arata ca s-a trecut de la faza empirica la cea elaborata, gandita, premeditat de alte persoane decat cel care ar trebui numit 'victima'.
Deci, daca un sportiv este depistat pozitiv ar fi normal ca si cei care l-au 'pregatit' sa fie sanctionati chiar mai aspru decat 'victima'...
Multi antrenori ai celor dopati ajung sa obtina fel de fel de beneficii si materiale dar mai ales morale si ei 'defileaza' in fata noastra, ca si cum totul a fost o simpla intamplare si deci 'putine sanse de a se repeta exista'..., ori viata ne arata ca acestia continua a premedita activitatea de doping, sunt tolerati cand ar trebui sa fie, parerea mea, exclusi din activitate, definitiv si iremediabil [ adica sa li retraga toate 'onorurile' obtinute fraudulos].
In acest ingust domeniu [ pedepsirea mentorilor] nu am remarcat sa existe masuri de pedepsire si atunci intreb: este just ca numai  o 'victima' sa sufere cand de fapt in 'spatele' sau 'pe spatele' ei sunt multi profitori ?
Nefiind 'expert' in a scrie pe siteul dv., va scriu si adresa de email la care, poate, ar fi nimerit a-mi da un raspuns Mircea Olaru, antrenor de inot, 4 Mai 2013 / 77 ani. [acum imi dau seama ca textul meu va fi respins deoarece nu sunt folosite semnele diacritice romanesti.., regret, dar eu asa scriu in grafia engleza si a ma intoarce la cea romana, necesara-recunosc, imi este greu... ce sa fac ?]
Bună ziua. Am anulat mesajul Dvs. de la Cafenea nu pentru că ar fi fost scris fără diacritice, dar pentru că nu se referă la Wikipedia. Or, în susul paginii [[Wikipedia:Cafenea]] scrie: „La Cafenea se discută numai subiecte legate de Wikipedia!”. Cele bune.

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